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In a strict definition, videotex is any system that provides interactive content and displays it on a video monitor such as a television, typically using modems to send data in both directions.
A close relative is teletext , which sends data in one direction only, typically encoded in a television signal. All such systems are occasionally referred to as viewdata.
Unlike the modern Internet , traditional videotex services were highly centralized. This usage is no longer common. With the exception of Minitel in France, videotex elsewhere never managed to attract any more than a very small percentage of the universal mass market once envisaged.
By the end of the s its use was essentially limited to a few niche applications. The first attempts at a general-purpose videotex service were created in the United Kingdom in the late s.
In about the BBC had a brainstorming session in which it was decided to start researching ways to send closed captioning information to the audience.
As the Teledata research continued the BBC became interested in using the system for delivering any sort of information, not just closed captioning.
In , the concept was first made public under the new name Ceefax. Meanwhile, the General Post Office soon to become British Telecom had been researching a similar concept since the late s, known as Viewdata.
Unlike Ceefax which was a one-way service carried in the existing TV signal, Viewdata was a two-way system using telephones.
Since the Post Office owned the telephones, this was considered to be an excellent way to drive more customers to use the phones. Not to be outdone by the BBC, they also announced their service, under the name Prestel.
In all the services agreed on a standard for displaying the information. The standard also introduced a new term that covered all such services, teletext.
By Prestel International was available in nine countries, and a number of countries, including Sweden, The Netherlands, Finland and West Germany were developing their own national systems closely based on Prestel.
Development of a French teletext-like system began in A very simple 2-way videotex system called Tictac was also demonstrated in the mids.
As in the UK, this led on to work to develop a common display standard for videotex and teletext, called Antiope , which was finalised in Antiope had similar capabilities to the UK system for displaying alphanumeric text and chunky "mosaic" character-based block graphics.
A difference however was that while in the UK standard control codes automatically also occupied one character position on screen, Antiope allowed for "non spacing" control codes.
This gave Antiope slightly more flexibility in the use of colours in mosaic block graphics, and in presenting the accents and diacritics of the French language.
In it began field trials issuing Antiope-based terminals for free to over , telephone subscribers in Ille-et-Vilaine region, where the French CCETT research centre was based, for use as telephone directories.
The trial was a success, and in Minitel was rolled out nationwide. Since researchers at the Communications Research Centre CRC in Ottawa had been working on a set of "picture description instructions", which encoded graphics commands as a text stream.
Graphics were encoded as a series of instructions graphics primitives each represented by a single ASCII character. Graphic coordinates were encoded in multiple 6 bit strings of XY coordinate data, flagged to place them in the printable ASCII range so that they could be transmitted with conventional text transmission techniques.
In , the CRC gave a contract to Norpak to develop an interactive graphics terminal that could decode the instructions and display them on a colour display, which was successfully up and running by Against the background of the developments in Europe, CRC was able to persuade the Canadian government to develop the system into a fully-fledged service.
Compared to the European systems, Telidon offered real graphics, as opposed to block-mosaic character graphics. The downside was that it required much more advanced decoders, typically featuring Zilog Z80 or Motorola processors.
Research in Japan was shaped by the demands of the large number of Kanji characters used in Japanese script. With s technology, the ability to generate of so many characters on demand in the end-user's terminal was seen as prohibitive.
Instead, development focussed on methods to send pages to user terminals pre-rendered, using coding strategies similar to facsimile machines.
The system also lent itself naturally to photographic images, albeit at only moderate resolution. However, the pages typically took two or three times longer to load, compared to the European systems.
NHK's ultimate production teletext system launched in But the national delegations showed little interest in compromise, each hoping that their system would come to define what was perceived to be going to be an enormous new mass-market.
Meanwhile, the European national Postal Telephone and Telegraph PTT agencies were also increasingly interested in videotex, and had convened discussions in European Conference of Postal and Telecommunications Administrations CEPT to co-ordinate developments, which had been diverging along national lines.
As well as the British and French standards, the Swedes had proposed extending the British Prestel standard with a new set of smoother mosaic graphics characters; while the specification for the proposed German Bildschirmtext BTX system, developed under contract by IBM Germany for Deutsche Bundespost , was growing increasingly baroque.
Originally conceived to follow the UK Prestel system, it had accreted elements from all the other European standards and more. National videotex services were encouraged to follow one of the existing four basic profiles; or if they extended them, to do so in ways compatible with a "harmonised enhanced" specification.
But in the event, it never happened. The other countries of Europe adopted a patchwork of the different profiles.
Prestel was somewhat popular for a time, but never gained anywhere near the popularity of Ceefax. This may have been due primarily to the relatively low penetration of suitable hardware in British homes, requiring the user to pay for the terminal today referred to as a set-top box , a monthly charge for the service, and phone bills on top of that unlike the US, local calls were paid for in most of Europe at that time.
In the late s the system was re-focused as a provider of financial data, and eventually bought out by the Financial Times in It continues today in name only, as FT's information service.
A closed access videotex system based on the Prestel model was developed by the travel industry, and continues to be almost universally used by travel agents throughout the country.
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On the back of the unit there was a RS and Centronic connections and on the front was the connector for the keyboard.
Interest in the UK trials did not go unnoticed in North America. In Canada the Department of Communications started a lengthy development program in the late s that led to a graphical "second generation" service known as Telidon.
Some TV signal systems used a low-speed modem on the phone line for menu operation. The resulting system was rolled out in several test studies, all of which were failures.
The use of the model modem, rather than one compatible with the existing DATAPAC dial-up points such as the Bell , created severe limitations, as it made use of the nationwide X.
Byte magazine once described it as "low resolution", when the coding system was, in fact, capable of 2 24 resolution in 8-byte mode.
This emphasis on special single-purpose hardware was yet another impediment to the widespread adoption of the system.
One of the earliest experiments with marketing videotex to consumers in the U. Sales were anemic. Radio Shack later sold a videotex software and hardware package for the Color Computer.
In an attempt to capitalize on the European experience, a number of US-based media firms started their own videotex systems in the early s.
Radio Shack is headquartered in Fort Worth. Unlike the UK, however, the FCC refused to set a single technical standard, so each provider could choose what it wished.
StarText used proprietary software developed at the Star-Telegram. Rolled out across the country from to , all of the services quickly died and none, except StarText, remained after another two years.
StarText remained in operation until the late s, when it was moved to the web. The primary problem was that the systems were simply too slow, operating on baud modems connected to large minicomputers.
After waiting several seconds for the data to be sent, users then had to scroll up and down to view the articles. Searching and indexing was not provided, so users often had to download long lists of titles before they could download the article itself.
Furthermore, most of the same information was available in easy-to-use TV format on the air, or in general reference books at the local library, and didn't tie up your phone line.
Unlike the Ceefax system where the signal was available for free in every TV, many U. In fact, the most successful online services of the period were not videotex services at all.
Instead all three used search functions and text interfaces to deliver files that were for the most part plain ASCII.
Because of its relatively late debut, Prodigy was able to skip the intermediate step of persuading American consumers to attach proprietary boxes to their televisions; it was among the earliest proponents of computer-based videotex.
It was also used for an interactive multipoint audio-graphic educational teleconferencing system that predated today's shared interactive whiteboard systems such as those used by Blackboard and Desire2Learn.
Videotex technology was also adopted for use internally within organizations. Goldman Sachs, for one, adopted and developed an internal fixed income information distribution and bond sales system based on DEV VTX.
Internal systems were overtaken by external vendors, notably Bloomberg, which offered the additional benefit of providing information from different firms and allowing interactive communication between the firms.
Australia's national public Videotex service, Viatel, was launched by Telecom Australia on 28 February The Viatel system had a very rapid take up in its first year due to the efforts of GEC Manager Terry Crews and his pioneering work on home banking for the Commonwealth Bank.
This service used ICL's proprietary "Bulletin" software which was based on the Prestel standard but provided many additional facilities such as the ability to run additional software for specific applications.
It also supported a proprietary email service. For Viditel you needed a paid subscription and on top of that you paid for each page you visited.
For Videotex services you normally didn't need a subscription nor was there the need to authenticate: you paid for the services via the premium rate of the modem-connection based on connection time, regardless of the pages or services you retrieved.
From the information-provider point of view there were huge differences between Viditel and Videotex: Via Viditel all data was normally stored on the central computer s owned and managed by KPN: to update the information in the system you connected to the Viditel computer and via a terminal-emulation application you could edit the information.
But when using Videotex the information is on a computer-platform owned and managed by the information-provider. The Videotex system connected the end-user to the Datanet 1 line of the information-provider.
It was up to the information provider if the access-point the box directly behind the telephone line supported the videotex protocol or that it was a transparent connection where the host handled the protocol.
Besides these public available services, generally without authentication, there were also several private services using the same infrastructure but using their own access-phone numbers and dedicated access-points.
As these services weren't public you had to log into the infrastructure. The largest private networks were Travelnet which was an information and booking-system for the travel industry and RDWNet which was set up for the automobile trade to register the outcome of MOT tests to the agency that officially issued the test-report.
Later some additional services for the branch were added such as a service where the readings of the odometer could be registered each time a car was brought in for service.
This was part of the Nationale Autopas Service and is now available via internet . The network of Videotex Nederland offered also direct access to most services of the French minitel system.
The system was based on the French model and Irish services were even accessible from France via the code " Irlande.
It wasn't a centralised service and individual service providers could connect to it via the Eirpac packet switching network.
It could also connect to databases on other networks such as French Minitel services, European databases and university systems.
The system was also the first platform in Ireland to offer users access to e-mail outside of a corporate setting. Despite being cutting edge for its time, the system failed to capture a large market and was ultimately withdrawn due to lack of commercial interest.
The rise of the internet and other global online services in the early to mids played a major factor in the death of Irish Minitel.
Minitel Ireland's terminals were technically identical to their French counterparts, except that they had a Qwerty keyboard and an RJ telephone jack which is the standard telephone connector in Ireland.
Terminals could be rented for 5. With the French Minitel system, unlike any other service, the users were given an entire custom designed terminal for free.
This was a deliberate move on the part of France Telecom, which reasoned that it would be cheaper in the long run to give away free terminals and teach its customers how to look up telephone listings on the terminal, instead of continuing to print and ship millions of phone books each year.
Once the network was in place, commercial services started to sprout up, becoming very popular in the mids. By tens of millions of terminals were in use.
The system was received enthusiastically thanks to a free two-month introductory period, but fizzled within two years. Online fees were very high, and the useful services such as home banking, restaurant reservations, and news feeds, that Bell Canada advertised did not materialise; within a very short time the majority of content on Alex was of poor quality or very expensive chat lines.
The Alex terminals did double duty for connecting to text-only BBSes. It was called Videotexto and operated from to the mid-nineties; a few other state telephone companies followed Telesp's lead, but each state kept standalone databases and services.
The key to its success was that the phone company offered only the service and phone subscriber databases and third parties—banks, database providers, newspapers—offered additional content and services.
The system peaked at 70 thousand subscribers around Some people confuse videotex with the Internet. Although early videotex providers in the s encountered many issues similar to those faced by Internet service providers 20 years later, it is important to emphasize that the two technologies evolved separately and reflect fundamentally different assumptions about how to computerize communications.
The Internet in its mature form after is highly decentralized in that it is essentially a federation of thousands of service providers whose mutual cooperation makes everything run, more or less.
Furthermore, the various hardware and software components of the Internet are designed, manufactured and supported by thousands of different companies.
Thus, completing any given task on the Internet, such as retrieving a webpage, relies on the contributions of hundreds of people at a hundred or more distinct companies, each of which may have only very tenuous connections with each other.
In contrast, videotex was always highly centralized except in the French Minitel service, also including thousands of information providers running their own servers connected to the packet switched network "TRANSPAC".
Even in videotex networks where third-party companies could post their own content and operate special services like forums, a single company usually owned and operated the underlying communications network, developed and deployed the necessary hardware and software, and billed both content providers and users for access.
The exception was the transaction processing videotex system developed in the UK by Michael Aldrich in , which brought teleshopping or online shopping as it was later called into prominence and was the idea developed later through the Internet.
Aldrich's systems were based on minicomputers that could communicate with multiple mainframes. Many systems were installed in the UK including the world's first supermarket teleshopping system.
Nearly all books and articles in English from videotex's heyday the late s and early s seem to reflect a common assumption that in any given videotex system, there would be a single company that would build and operate the network.
Although this appears shortsighted in retrospect, it is important to realize that communications had been perceived as a natural monopoly for almost a century — indeed, in much of the world, telephone networks were then and still are explicitly operated as a government monopoly.
Other computer networks at the time were not really decentralized; for example, the private network Tymnet had central control computers called supervisors which controlled each other in an automatically determined hierarchy.
It would take another decade of hard work to transform the Internet from an academic toy into the basis for a modern information utility. Definitions of Videotex and associated terms.